Women Landowners and the Future of Agriculture

women23We’re witnessing a major demographic shift in agriculture. Over the next two decades, as aging farmers retire or leave their land to the next generation, 70 percent of the nation’s private farm and ranch land will likely change hands. One report predicts that women may own 75 percent of this transferred farmland.

Many of these women are non-farming landowners. A significant number of farm and ranch land owners in the United States – 42 percent – lease out their land for other people to operate.

Although they may not be in farming themselves, we know that non-farming landowners make many important decisions about their land that have a profound impact on the nation’s land stewardship and farm viability. For instance, these landowners have a say in what conservation practices take place on their land – affecting soils, water and the environment.

But research shows that women landowners who lease their land face greater gender barriers in managing their land for long-term sustainability. Their farming tenants may dismiss their conservation goals, or they may not know how to approach the resource management agencies (like Soil and Water Conservation Districts) for help.

At the same time, Iowa researchers discovered that women who lease farmland in their state tend to be deeply committed to healthy farmland, farm families and farm communities. If this trend holds for women in general, it makes them ideal partners in conservation across the nation after we overcome the obstacles they face.

To address this potential paradigm shift in land ownership, American Farmland Trust has a two-prong approach: find out more about how women who lease their land to others make decisions, and figure out the best way to get them the information they need.

Thanks to a timely investment from Rachel’s Network – a vibrant community of women at the intersection of environmental advocacy, philanthropy and women’s leadership – we partnered with Peggy Petrzelka at Utah State University (USU). She is a well-known expert on non-farming landowners. USDA’s Economic Research Service and The Mosaic Company Foundation also provided much-needed funding for this effort.

Through a survey and focus groups with women around the country, we are learning more about women landowners – which will help us and the nation’s resource management agencies give these women the tools they need to best take care of their land.

In Illinois and Indiana, we convened learning circles for women inspired by work the Women, Food and Agriculture Network (WFAN) had done in Iowa. Women-only learning circles bring women landowners together with conservation professionals – also women – to have an informal discussion about their hopes and dreams for their land.

Over 50 percent of the women who attend these sessions take a conservation action within six months of attending a learning circle, according to WFAN findings. As a result of their value, we are supporting continued learning circles in both states while expanding them to Maryland and Virginia. AFT’s Farmland Information Center uses the findings from these circles to better provide the information and resources these landowners need.

Already through our focus groups we’ve uncovered many regional differences among women landowners in terms of how much land they own, whether they live on the land, what decisions they share with their tenants, and the particular challenges they face.

We will keep you apprised as this exciting project moves forward and as we gain insights that guide our work as the nation’s leading resource for saving the land and keeping it healthy. To learn more about our work with women landowners, visit www.farmland.org/programs/protection/Empowering-Women-Landowners.asp.

Click here to read the preliminary report on this project.

 

 

 

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Cultivating the Next Generation: Beginning Farmers Success Stories

trapp23After working as a mechanical engineer, Mark Trapp decided to be a farmer. “I got into farming because of fear for the world I’d bring children into,” he said. “But now it’s a love of the land that keeps me here—and that’s a more positive motivation.”

Mark read books about modern agriculture and agricultural practices before becoming a part-time farmer on a two acre plot near Cleveland, Ohio. After three years, he dreamed of having his own farm.

Mark is not alone. New and beginning farmers struggle to not only find available farmland, but also the capital to get started. According to the 2012 Census of Agriculture, the number of beginning farmers is at a 30-year low, down 20 percent since 2007. In an effort to help new and beginning farmers succeed in agriculture, American Farmland Trust investigated the challenges and opportunities beginners face and what resources are available to help them. Our report, Cultivating the Next Generation: Resources and Policies to Help Beginning Farmers Succeed in Agriculture, highlights 11 beginning farmers and ranchers from across the country, including Mark Trapp.

New and beginning farmers and ranchers’ most universal challenge is acquiring farmland to rent and buy. Mark took a creative approach; he worked with a local land conservancy working to restore the agricultural heritage of Ohio’s Cuyahoga Valley, which was designated as a national park. The Conservancy works closely with the National Park Service to select qualified and committed new farmers to make the land productive. Within eight months, Mark had a 60-year lease on 28 fertile acres.

Farmer23Inspired by the local foods movement, freelance writer-turned-farmer Alison Parker apprenticed for a year on an urban farm. Hooked on farming, she interned on a CSA (community supported agriculture) farm before launching Radical Root Organic Farm in Libertyville, Illinois, with Alex Needham. A local nonprofit loaned them a one-acre plot to get started. Ready to expand after only their first season, they couldn’t find land they could afford.

So, they focused on incubator programs and landed on the Farm Business Development Center (FBDC) at Prairie Crossing Farm, “It was a great location,” says Alison, noting that the farm is less than an hour to downtown Chicago. The FBDC provided access to land, key infrastructure and equipment and mentors from Sandhill Organics, the keystone, permanent farm on the Prairie Crossing site. During their first year, Alison and Alex leased two acres, a tractor, and tools. By the end of their fifth season, the farm produced certified organic vegetables, eggs, and honey for 110 CSA members and two larger farmers markets.

Today, thanks to the support of the FBDC, Alison and Alex lease 12 tillable acres of conservation land in a unique land tenure arrangement with a local land trust. Liberty Prairie Foundation leases the land from Conserve Lake County and the forest district and then subleases it to Radical Root Farm. With their biggest hurdle behind them, Alison and Alex are getting equipment and infrastructure in place. They received a small grant, applied for a USDA microloan to purchase a wash-pack facility and cooler, and are using crowdfunding to help pay for a new greenhouse.

Mark, Alison and Alex are beating the odds — they were able to secure land and capital to get started and are succeeding in agriculture.

AFT found many private organizations and public programs to support beginning farmers and ranchers. But, they are widely dispersed and disconnected, making it hard for beginners to find, compare and access those resources, especially state policies. In response, we created a special collection on our Farmland Information Center: http://www.farmlandinfo.org/beginningfarmers. In addition, USDA just unveiled a new website to provide a centralized, one-stop resource where beginners can find the variety of USDA initiatives designed to help them succeed: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/newfarmers?navid=newfarmers.

Read more success stories and find out more about state policies and resources to support beginning farmers and ranchers in American Farmland Trust’s report Cultivating the Next Generation: Resources and Policies to Help Beginning Farmers Succeed in Agriculture

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Taking a Risk on the Farm Proves Economically Rewarding, Environmentally Beneficial

Three years before the Maryland Department of Agriculture revised nutrient management regulations a BMP Challenge crop adviser, Don Moore (AET Agricultural Consulting) took the initiative and partnered with American Farmland Trust and Agflex Inc. to work with seven farmers to inject or incorporate manure into the soil.  Manure injection or incorporation increases fertilizer efficiency, thus reducing potential nutrient loss from the field three ways.  When the manure is below, rather than on top of the soil, nitrogen rich ammonia gas can’t escape to the air making more of it available to the plant by as much as 20%. Secondly, the fertilizer is now located several inches closer to the plant roots. Finally, it is far less susceptible to being washed away in heavy spring rains. The potential is for this practice to allow the farmer to reduce the total amount of total fertilizer inputs mainly the chemical type put on mid-season, thus be, saving money and improving water quality.

Since manure incorporation with vertical tillage equipment such as an Aerway or Turbotill is a relatively new practice, the BMP Challenge comparisons were setup to determine whether incorporation would affect yields. In 2012, participants applied the same number of nitrogen credits across the entire field.  However, they reduced the amount of commercial fertilizer at sidedress on the manure incorporation acres.  The incorporation increased the nitrogen credit to offset the commercial fertilizer reduction. By the third year, the part of the field where manure was applied to the surface at the recommended rate was compared to the rest of the field that used incorporation and a reduced application rate based less ammonia escaping to the air.

Across the three years, incorporation showed an average increase in net returns by $6.00 per acre and a nitrogen reduction of 7 pounds.  Over-all the farmers saved more than 8,400 pounds of nitrogen applications. Five of seven participating farmers in the BMP Challenge demonstrations were interviewed last fall regarding their participation. Three have purchased new equipment. One is seriously considering it and the fifth has expanded use of vertical tillage to all his crop acres. According to Moore, “Throughout the entire BMP Challenge process, farmers demonstrated their willingness and eagerness to learn.  They want to learn about and adopt new technologies if they make good economic sense.  They are not willing to risk yield to experiment.  This is where the yield guarantee was important to them.  In this world of high commodity prices, and inputs that are equally as high, growers are hesitant to entertain additional risk.  No one is interested in over-application of nutrients.

Maryland state law now requires farmers to inject or incorporate manure and other organic nutrient sources into the soil within 48 hours of application.  The past three years of work on the Eastern Shore has provided important information to farmers and agricultural advisors as well. The BMP Challenge will be working with an expanded number of growers this year to transition from surface application to manure incorporation.

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A Vision for California Agriculture: An Interview with Edward Thompson, Jr., California Director, American Farmland Trust

What brought you to this kind of work and has kept you engaged for your 32 years with American Farmland Trust (AFT)?

I started out as an environmental lawyer at the Environmental Defense Fund back in the early 1970’s. We were working on pesticides, water quality and quantity and wetlands, and the common thread that runs through all these issues is agriculture. So that was how I got interested in farming. Then I had a chance to go work on what may have been the first farmland preservation project in the country with The National Association of Counties. They had just gotten a Rockefeller grant to design and advance a national farmland protection policy that eventually became the Farmland Protection Policy Act of 1981.

I was doing that and pulling together information about what was going on with farmland protection in various places around the country, when I was approached by Doug Wheeler and Pat Noonan who had been asked by Peggy Rockefeller, AFT’s founder, to put together what was supposed to be a “Nature Conservancy for agriculture.” They asked me to serve as AFT’s first legal counsel as well as publications editor. I thought it was a great opportunity. Doug became AFT’s first president and Pat its eventual chairman. The rest is history.

How did you come to be AFT’s California director?

I have held a number of positions since joining AFT, including general counsel, national policy director and senior vice president. In each of these capacities I have been involved in California, the nation’s leading farm state. So, when I was asked in 2003 to take over our operation out here, I jumped at the chance. In my view, this is one place where AFT simply cannot afford to fail. One-eighth of U.S. agriculture is at stake, including more than half of our healthy fruits and vegetables. Urban sprawl was invented here and remains endemic, consuming 50,000 acres of farmland a year.

What accomplishment in the past year are you most proud of?

AFT helped launch a “greenprint,” which is intended to be a set of strategies for the conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, in the San Joaquin Valley. This is California’s most important agricultural region, the southern half of the Central Valley. It’s like a fruit forest 250 miles long by 50 miles wide. In the spring when all the fruit, the almonds and the peaches and the plums everything are in bloom, it’s just astonishing. But it’s under siege from urban growth with a population of four million expected to reach nine million by mid-century.

We hope the “greenprint” will address the environmental challenges facing agriculture like maintaining an adequate irrigation water supply and help reinforce the idea that the farmland surrounding the Valley’s cities is not just white space on the map awaiting its “highest and best use.” In most cases, agriculture is the highest and best use. The “greenprint” will, thus, supplement something called the San Joaquin “Blueprint,” which is a plan for more compact, efficient urban development in which AFT also played a key role. It will save something like 150,000 acres of farmland that would otherwise have succumbed to urban sprawl in this region. That is, if local governments actually implement the plan. AFT has been digging in at the local level in an effort to get cities and counties to amend their land use plans to conform to the Blueprint. The City of Fresno, the biggest city in the Valley, is leading the way on this. It recently adopted a new plan that is a model for “smart growth” that will save farmland and reduce the greenhouse gases contributing to climate change. Through its Groundswell network, AFT helped rally a diverse group of hundreds of people who turned out at the hearing to encourage the city council to vote for the plan.

What’s the most important thing that can be done to save farmland in California?

In California, almost all the cities are surrounded by very productive, irreplaceable farmland. As they grow, we’re going to have to sacrifice some of that land so people can have places to live and work. But to keep the loss to a minimum, we need to use the land more efficiently. Cities ought to be thinking more like farmers, in terms of yield per acre. Farmers want to get the most crop they can on each acre they farm, that’s how they make money. Cities should be thinking in a similar way in terms of how many people, how many jobs, how many dollars of economic activity they can get out of each acre of farmland that is paved over. That will pay dividends for them, too, not only by saving farmland, but also by conserving water and energy and, perhaps most importantly, reducing the cost to taxpayers of providing public services to new development.


Ed ThompsonAbout the Author: Edward Thompson, Jr., California Director at American Farmland Trust has been with the organization since it was founded more than 30 years ago, serving in multiple positions and helping initiate a wide variety of projects.

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Preserving Clean Water and Viable Farms in the Mid-Atlantic: An Interview with Jim Baird, Mid-Atlantic Director, American Farmland Trust

What brought you to American Farmland Trust (AFT) and has kept you engaged over the past five years?

I don’t have a farm background but I did overseas work for a long time in sustainable agriculture and community-based things was always part of that. Then I began working more in conservation and sustainability. Working in the Chesapeake Bay region at this point in time has been a profound experience. I see it as a challenge of figuring out how we work and play and grow food and live in this area yet still maintain an estuary that actually functions. It is a civilizational problem. It’s all over the world at the mouth of every major river basin. In this region we are at the cutting edge in figuring out how we do this.

I’m always struck by the amount of respect that comes with me into the room when I say that I’m with American Farmland Trust. I think our partners see us coming with good ideas, well thought through. Obviously we have a constituency and we advocate for them, but I think that we’re seen as honest brokers, people who are trying to make good policy, good decisions, make good things happen, not just advance our side of things. It’s really critical because farmland touches all of those interests so our partnerships are hugely important. A farmer we work with recently said that AFT is able to rise above the local politics that often derail good ideas because we have a national focus and a long perspective. We want what is best for farmland and farming over all.

As part of a coalition in Pennsylvania, AFT helped stop cuts for farmland preservation funds proposed by Governor Corbett. Can you expand upon that accomplishment?

It was a real victory. State budgets are tight everywhere and you look around and see other states where cuts were made yet Pennsylvania survived. The reason I think we were successful is because AFT has helped to build and support a very strong, broad coalition of farmers, agricultural groups and environmental people who are concerned about water and woods and the environmental side of things. And we all got together behind a Save the Farm coalition. We were well-organized and just had a good campaign. It resonated with Pennsylvanians who have shown their commitment to the idea and to pay to protect farmland for 30 years. We got them to speak up, write letters and make calls. We had a great response in the press. Ultimately the legislators listened and make a strong showing to the governor to say that this isn’t ok.

What are some big challenges AFT has faced in the Mid-Atlantic region over the past year?

I think we really need to nail down this issue of having farmland be adequately represented in the solution to this big issue of how do we live on the land in a way that is sustainable? And we need a new look at that because while all the reasons we have identified through the years for why farmland is important are all still true, we also have this heightened concern  about water quality.  We need to understand what role farmland and farmers plays in this realm and we articulate to people. They need to understand how much agriculture is part of the solution for this issue, too. And so this last year I’ve been working on making the case that farmland is essential for water quality so we can make it part of the policy solution.

There are so many uses for land and there are so many more near-term uses that seem more important like housing and transportation, stuff that people have to do on a daily basis. It feels to most people that the food, and the open space and the other benefits are just going to be there and there’s enough land. And we don’t realize how thin that is. That great animation we have about the earth being an apple and how thin, how precious and tiny the part that is farmland and the productive soils that we need are in comparison to the whole earth.

What was another great accomplishment of 2012?

One of the best things was getting a big acknowledgement for our work from the head of Penn State Extension [Dr. Doug Beegle], who is a renowned agronomist and soil scientist. He has been promoting sensible practices that help farmers meet their business need to be profitable and have good yields by being more precise and efficient in how they use nutrients, which helps clean the water. The approach that AFT uses, which we call the BMP Challenge, allows farmers to try out new practices risk free. They work with an expert person in the field to set up a comparison of this new practice compared to what they’ve been doing. Then if they lose money on the new practice, we promise to pay them the difference. It’s a guarantee that lets them sleep well at night because they know that they can try this thing, they can learn from it, and it’s not going to be a big loss for them economically. Having the head of extension at Penn State say, “I think this approach of AFT, this BMP challenge, is the perfect thing to use to get farmers to try out this soil testing practice,” that was great.

What do you think is one of the most important things to note about AFT’s work in the Mid-Atlantic region?

The thing that I keep coming back to is that people really need to have a better appreciation for what farmers are really thinking about and what goes into their decisions and how complex and nuanced those are. It’s a technical, complex profession. It’s just wonderful to sit in meetings with these farmers and hear them discuss their decision-making process. They really care about it. Obviously, it’s their livelihood but they’re working with nature every day and it’s complex. One of the things that I try to do is to get farmers in front of non-farmers and have them hear that.

It’s a highly technical and sophisticated knowledge-based career and it’s risky. You have got to be out there making decisions and spending money and going out on a limb for the whole year, and it’s only when you harvest that yield that you get your paycheck. You have so little control over most of what is important, which is rainfall and temperature. Whew, talk about living life on the edge!


Jim BairdAbout the Author: Jim Baird is Mid-Atlantic Director for the American Farmland Trust where he works to help maintain viable farms and clean water through the adoption of nutrient-related conservation practices and ensuring that farmer concerns are reflected in policy and program discussions.

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Protecting Farmland by the Acre—and the Inch—in the Midwest: An Interview with Mike Baise, Midwest Director, American Farmland Trust

What first brought you to American Farmland Trust (AFT) and what has kept you engaged in your first year with the organization?

I grew up on a grain and livestock farm in central Illinois and worked in agriculture in Illinois and Indiana most of my professional career. Shortly after graduate school, I began working at the Illinois Department of Agriculture where they had programs involving farmland protection and soil conservation. I became aware of AFT through the Department in the early 1980’s and respected their work and found it appealing. I also viewed agricultural policy as being driven more and more by environmental concerns and I thought of AFT as being a bridge between the agricultural and environmental communities. I still think that is an important function of the organization and I am interested in being a part of that effort.

I think most folks who have heard of American Farmland Trust immediately think about preserving acres of farmland. If you’ve ever flown over or driven through Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, you know there are a lot of acres of farmland also with prime soils. I’ve thought about AFT’s work and approaches to promote the AFT brand in the Midwest and the best visual idea I’ve come up with is preserving both precious acres of farmland and precious inches of topsoil.

What would you say was one of your favorite or fondest memories from the past year?

Early in the year, I think it was probably the first weekend in February, John Hardin, who is on AFT’s board of directors and a Purdue Trustee, asked me if I wanted to attend the Purdue Ag Alumni Fish Fry with him. It’s a big event in Indiana agriculture and anybody that’s anybody in Indiana agriculture attends it. I happily went along and was delighted to find out that the luncheon speaker was a guy named Howard Buffet. Howard is the son of financier Warren Buffet and also is an Illinois farmer and has a charitable foundation.  His message that day struck me as being perfect for the Purdue alumni audience. It was all about food security, not just U.S. food security, but global food security and the importance of soils and soil health and tillage systems and cover crops. It was a fascinating speech and I was really jazzed by his remarks.

Also later that same month, I had an opportunity to attend a meeting at Purdue Research Farm about cover crops, the growing crops you put on the land after the corn and soybeans are harvested. They’re not commodity crops; they’re considered something that prevents soil erosion and adds to organic matter and other wonderful things that help with the health and the conditioning of the soil.

I would say those two events probably did more than anything else to shape my thinking about what I might be able to do with AFT in Indiana and Illinois.

In Illinois, AFT is working with partners to host Lady Landowners Learning Circles. Could you talk a bit about that project?

For many years I worked for the Indiana Farm Bureau, an organization that represents the interests of agriculture, farmers and farm families. One thing I observed was that as farm couples age, typically women live longer than men. After they become widows, women are frequently in charge of a very valuable asset, meaning the farmland, and they may or may not have been engaged in dealing with government programs or some of the institutions that impact the farmland itself. I thought there’s an opportunity here, a niche for American Farmland Trust to play in helping educate and empower women who own or control the land. Through conversations with my new AFT colleague, Anne Sorensen, I found that we both had that same thinking in common. So we are making the case those women landowners have a lot of influence on who rents the land and whether or not conservation will be applied to the land.

My father and mother were a team in their farming career. Their goal in life was to buy a farm, own their own land and raise and educate their two sons. And they were successful in that both of their sons have college educations and they bought and paid for a modest farm in west central Illinois.  My dad passed away in 1993. My mother, as a widowed land owner, was fortunate in that she had a son as her tenant. But a lot of other women in that same circumstance don’t have a son or a daughter or that trusted tenant. There’s this challenge of women having enough information and knowledge to be able to deal with their tenants in an empowered way. When your partner passes on, there’s the immediate shock of the loss and then there’s the secondary shock of, “Well, what am I going to do? How am I going to manage? How am I going to take care of this asset that we spent our entire lives building?” They need information and confidence to make informed decisions and there could be a role for a national organization like AFT.

What do you think are the most important steps for AFT in the Midwest in the coming year?

First, I would say the cultivation of women landowners. Accelerating of adoption of cover crops would be important. Also, I had a recent and interesting phone call with the Champaign County Soil and Water Conservation District. They had been contacted by the Urbana- Champaign Sanitary District, the water treatment utility. They are really interested in exploring work with farmers to reduce phosphorus and nitrates in surface waters so that they might avoid having to build a large and expensive addition to their water treatment plant. Their thinking parallels our Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading pilot in the states of Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky.

If other Illinois municipalities were to decide to support on-farm conservation to address surface water nutrient loading that could be a significant new source of conservation funding. If a city like Chicago were to support conservation practices being applied over land in the Illinois River Valley that would be a very big deal. If we can be successful in the Ohio River Basin and have a couple good examples to go to big municipalities like Chicago, maybe we can sell them on a way of cleaning up the water in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.


About the Author: Mike Baise joined American Farmland Trust in January 2012 as the Midwest Director. Baise’s primary responsibilities include managing projects that help farmers improve water quality, engaging stakeholders to develop policy, and finding practical solutions that result in viable farms and an improved environment.

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Planning for Food and Agriculture in New England: An Interview with Cris Coffin, New England Director, American Farmland Trust

What brought you to American Farmland Trust (AFT) and has kept you engaged in your work over the past 11 years?

I was first introduced to AFT when our former president, Ralph Grossi, along with AFT Special Advisor Norm Berg, came to discuss Farm Bill conservation programs with my then boss, Senator Herb Kohl.  I was impressed that AFT clearly cared about both the environment and farmers—not just one or the other.    I continue to feel that way.  AFT fills an important niche in bridging the divide between the agriculture and environmental communities, and we are able to do that, in part, because we have a staff that knows and understands agriculture.   I have great colleagues,  and their  expertise and commitment to those things that AFT works on makes it a wonderful organization to work for.

What would you say one of your greatest accomplishments at AFT was in 2012?

This past year has been one where AFT has focused our work at the regional level.  We embarked on an exciting regional policy project with the Northeast Sustainable Working Group and the Conservation Law Foundation.   We finished a regional milkshed study that looks at ways consumers and policymakers can support our region’s dairy farms.  We organized a regional farmland protection convening attended by our land trust and state and federal agency partners around the region, and started planning for a larger regional farmland convening in 2013.  And we continued our work with Farm to Institution in New England to build new markets for New England farmers and spur investment in the region’s food system infrastructure.

It’s been an exciting year, with so much interest and energy around the region on building New England’s food system infrastructure and fostering economic development in agriculture.   And with each of the  New England states focused on planning for agriculture and the food system, it’s a great opportunity to think holistically about the region’s farmland base and what it will take not only to stem the loss of productive farmland, but to put additional land back into production to grow the region’s food production capacity.

Brian Donahue at Brandeis University is working on an exciting vision about New England’s food future that imagines New England meeting at least half of its food needs in 50 years.  Since we now produce only 10 percent of the fruits and vegetables we eat in New England, and less than 50 percent of the dairy products, this would be an enormous change, but one that could have a very positive impact on our food security, our economy and our environment.  How much land will we need to get to this type of vision?  And how do we work as a region to keep farmland in farming, reclaim land for agriculture in an environmentally sustainable way, and recognize that agriculture can play a critical role in our region’s economy and environment?

What are some of your most relevant findings thus far in AFT’s efforts to identify policies to improve regional food resilience?

Our two-year regional policy project with the Conservation Law Foundation and the Northeast Sustainable Ag Working Group is looking across the food system to identify both the most significant challenges and the policy levers that are going to be the most impactful. There are a few I would point out.

One significant challenge—and this is not new—is farm profitability.  There are some very significant hurdles that farm businesses face that we simply have to address if we want to encourage a next generation of farmers and increase food production in the region.  Farm labor is a huge hurdle.  Increased and complex regulations around food safety are another.   Reducing costs and increasing efficiencies—in energy and other farm inputs, in processing and distribution—are others.

We are also looking at opportunities to make land more accessible and affordable to both established and new farmers.  A lot of landowners, including towns and land trusts, rent land to farmers but don’t always appreciate that some of the constraints they put on the use of that land make it challenging to farm.  A lot of land that is protected in this region is protected in such a way as to make it difficult to farm.  And for young farmers especially who don’t often have the resources to be able to purchase land, are there ways that might allow them to build some equity in a farm business on land that they may not own?  There’s a lot of good thinking being done on this issue through Land For Good’s regional Land Access Project which we’ve been involved in, and we want to use this policy project to highlight and gain traction on some new policy ideas and tools. .

What are the most important steps moving forward in 2013 for your work in New England?

One of the things that we are very excited about is having a regional convening in the first quarter of 2013 around farmland specifically.  The convening offers an opportunity to brainstorm around   regional collaboration and to showcase state and regional policies and projects that are making a difference that we think might be replicated across the region.  That conversation, and the work leading up to it and coming out of it, I hope will produce a needed action plan for the region around farmland.

Similarly, our new Farmland Advisors program, which we are doing jointly with AFT’s New York office, will be gearing up with webinars next spring and a conference next fall.  This program will be training 80 participants—agricultural service providers, state agency staff, and land trust representatives—about farmland access and farm transfer tools and strategies.  This is a way of taking what we’re learning from our regional policy project and the Land Access Project and getting information into the hands of the people who are working directly with farmers and landowners.

We will also stay involved in 2013 in both state and regional-level food system planning.  We’re excited that Massachusetts is about to embark on a statewide strategic food system planning effort, and that Connecticut will be rolling out its first recommendations associated with its agricultural planning efforts. Farmland loss has been significant in both these states, and we see these planning efforts as critical to building momentum for policies and investments that will help keep farmers on the land.

What do you think is one of the most critical parts of your work in New England?

We’re at an exciting point in time where policymakers and the general public want to support local farms and farming. We absolutely need to make the most of this opportunity.  We need to demonstrate that agriculture really can be an economic driver. We need to explain how investments in agriculture and farmland can be good for both the environment and for public health.  And in this age of competing demands on state, federal and private resources, we need especially to be strategic. How can we best leverage resources within and around the region?  What state and federal policies can we revamp to encourage smarter growth and less conversion of farmland? And what will really make the biggest difference in keeping farmers on the land over the next ten years? Fortunately, AFT has many great partners around New England, along with members and donors who share our vision and goals.  We look forward to working with them all in 2013!


About the Author: Cris Coffin is the New England Director for American Farmland Trust, where she leads efforts to promote farmland protection, farm viability and conservation practices in New England through research, outreach, advocacy and policy development at the local, state and national level.

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Spreading the No Farms No Food® Message in New York: An Interview with David Haight, New York Director, American Farmland Trust

What brought you to American Farmland Trust and what has kept you here for 13 years?

New York farmer walking through field with sonsI grew up in a very rural part of Upstate New York in a community that was dominated by dairy farms and apple trees. What I always appreciated growing up was the importance of helping to protect the natural environment but also to do it in a way that would allow people to make a living from the land. I saw it first-hand in the work that my neighbors were doing. American Farmland Trust is a national leader in finding ways of protecting the land but also supporting the people that are making their living from that land. So AFT was a natural fit.

Part of the reason I am still here is the people. I very much enjoy the people that have worked for American Farmland Trust. The commitment they have for the mission of this organization is very deep. We also work with some tremendous partners here in New York and we have the opportunity to see people that are really having an impact on the lives of a lot of New Yorkers.

Every day is a little different. No two days are the same and I think there are incredible challenges here and that makes coming to work fun.

What was one of the greatest accomplishments in for American Farmland Trust in New York in 2012?

I think it was a pivot year for AFT and our work in New York. Let’s face it, the last four years have been really, really tough. A lot of the public funding sources that we rely on for our work have been decimated. I think that in 2012 we saw that perhaps we are starting to rebuild some of the things that have been hurt so deeply. For example, our state farmland protection program got a boost in funding in 2012, up to $12 million. That program permanently protected 20 farms in 2011-2012. Those are 20 farm families and it is 6,000 acres of farmland that is now going to be permanently protected in this state.

We also really are at the earliest stages in, I think, some of the most exciting projects we’ve had here at AFT in a long time. Diane Held’s work with the New Generation Farmer initiative in helping new farmers find land in helping the senior generation transfer their farms successfully, I think the work is phenomenal. The Farms to Institutions in New York State initiative has just tremendous potential for AFT. I’m very excited about some of the work that Laura TenEyck is doing with an engagement campaign and hopefully in 2013 we’re going to take significant steps forward in getting more New Yorkers personally involved in helping stop the loss of farmland. I see the potential being very bright for AFT and our work in 2013.

Could you share an inspiring or memorable moment from the No Farms No Food Rally and Lobby Day?

I have the mental image of our Lieutenant Governor [Robert Duffy] joining us, talking about Governor Cuomo’s commitment to food and agriculture as an economic development priority. He was the mayor of the city of Rochester when American Farmland Trust gave Rochester the America’s Favorite Farmers Market award. He has seen personally how agriculture has such economic development potential in New York and how that can mean new jobs and new opportunities. He spoke very eloquently about that.

So did Robert Morgantheau who was our keynote speaker and a former Manhattan district attorney. It was a very heartening thing to see Mr. Morgantheau there with his son Josh, who is now managing their family farm in the Hudson Valley, pointing to the connection that farms have to our history, talking about Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill visiting their farm. But then he quickly moved into how their farm is helping to bring fresh produce into different communities in Brooklyn and Manhattan and the new CSA that they have. This connection with our history and our legacy in the Hudson Valley but also a lot of the interest in better diet and public health and some of the other connections we have here in New York. Those two people saying some of the things that they did really stood out for me. Laurie what comes to your mind when you think back?

Is there anyone that has inspired the way you thought about a challenge or approach with your land transition and next generation farmer work in New York?

We held two next generation farmer forums here in New York, one in Hyde Park last fall and one out in east Aurora. Matt Schober (Cool Whisper Farm) spoke, a farmer from Columbia County who was dealing with a farm transfer problem and wanted to get into grass-fed beef. The family had a small dairy farm in the Hudson Valley. His dad wanted to bring him back home to the family farm but he couldn’t afford to just gift the farm to his one son that wanted to come home. He didn’t feel it was fair. And the son was grappling with, “How do we make this work?”

For me, Matt just crystalized so much of the challenge for that senior generation, for his dad, but then also for him, as somebody that wanted to continue this family farm but was just struggling with the same sets of issues. Even though he grew up on a farm, he had gone off to school and he knew agriculture. It wasn’t a new experience for him but the challenges were so real. We need to be talking about both sides of the story. I think sometimes you get caught up in the young person that’s getting into agriculture. I think that’s a compelling story but we can’t forget the other side of the equation.

What are the most important steps moving forward in 2013 for your work in New York?

There are a few things that we’re going to be rolling forward with in 2013. We have one of our biggest water quality projects on eastern Long Island. We started to work with 10 farmers in helping them reduce their use of fertilizer to help protect Long Island Sound. I think we’re poised in 2013 to really ramp that up a notch and expand the number of farmers we work with and start looking at other types of crops that farmers are growing.

Our plans are to launch in 2013 this Greater Hudson Valley FarmLink network which will be a combination of a website, a series of training programs, and a network of supporting match facilitators to connect people that are looking for farms and have farmland available. So that is, I think, a very exciting program for 2013.


About the Author: David Haight is New York Director of American Farmland Trust and aids state and federal legislators as they work on agricultural and land conservation legislation. He has helped coordinate projects that have permanently protected more than 4,000 acres of New York farmland.

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Advocating for Farmland Forever in the Pacific Northwest: An Interview with Dennis Canty, Pacific Northwest Director, American Farmland Trust

What brought you to at American Farmland Trust and has kept you engaged during your two years here?

I’ve actually known about the organization since the early 1980’s and I’ve had a pretty strong interest in farmland preservation and rural conservation issues since then. I first got to know AFT when I was in graduate school and since 2003 had a really good opportunity to work with my predecessor, Don Stuart, who is just a great guy. He knows everybody and pretty much everything about farmland preservation out here. And so I was really inspired by Don’s leadership and interested in trying to continue his work out here.

Over the past year, what were some of the greatest accomplishments for AFT work in the Pacific Northwest?

Back in February, we released a report on farmland preservation programs around Puget Sound that is a comparative scorecard of how county governments are doing on farmland preservation. As part of that, it identified a few of the counties (three of the 12) that are really doing excellent work in terms of land use planning and purchase and transfer of development rights. We recognized those three with awards this spring and that was very well-received by the counties. One of the best things about the project is that, right after we released the report on the results, we had a couple of counties call up and say, “hey, how do we improve our score?” which is just the kind of thing that we like to hear. Right now we are working actively with a couple of counties to improve their land use planning related to agriculture. It’s exactly the kind of impact that we were hoping to have.

Mid-summer we revived Pioneers in Conservation, which offers small grants to farmers to do conservation work on their farms. Out here the focus is mostly on salmon recovery. People are doing is riparian restoration, but it also has tremendous water quality benefits. AFT had a breakthrough moment in the Snoqualmie Valley, just east of Seattle, where we came in with a very, very small pot of money, $35,000, but had the flexibility to allocate it to conservation projects that wouldn’t have been funded through other sources. As a consequence we were able to leverage a lot of funding both from nonprofit organizations and from NRCS. In the process we went from a $35,000 program to a program that’s now funded at about $400,000. And we’ll be doing riparian restoration on more than three miles of critical salmon reaches and farm communities out there. So that’s a pretty big deal. It’s also been called out by USDA out here as a great example of the kind of work that they want to see done around Washington State, particularly in the Puget Sound basin. So it has been a real hit.

Then I guess the last thing that I want to discuss is the Farmland Forever campaign. We have a really significant problem with farmland loss here in the Puget Sound region. We’ve lost about 60 percent of our farmland here since 1950, and of course this is near and dear to our mission as an organization. One of the things I’ve been interested in doing since I got here is to try to develop a strong campaign for farmland preservation in the Puget Sound region, particularly where the rates of loss have been high. We actually have a pretty significant grant from an organization called the Washington Women’s Foundation and we were the only grantee in their environmental category this year. We hope that this campaign is going to result in the protection of more than 100,000 acres of additional farmland here in the region.

What will be an important step in 2013 for the Farmland Forever campaign?

What I think that we’re finding in ramping up the Farmland Forever campaign is that there are a tremendous number of organizations that have an interest in farmland preservation but for whom this is not their primary focus. We need to develop a workable coalition among all those organizations. It’s quite an interesting mix of both agricultural and environmental organizations. Out here people do appreciate the role of farmers in preserving water quality and restoring habitat so there is a pretty strong appreciation for farmland preservation among the environmental community.

Can you think of a champion of farmland that has either inspired some of your work or changed the way you thought about approaching the challenges that you’ve faced?

Don Stuart. He’s a very self-effacing guy; he can be quiet and deferential. It’s amazing as I’ve gotten into this job to know just how far into this field he was active and what a huge difference he had made in farmland protection throughout the region.  I’ve just been humbled by it, to think he was really effective on so many different levels. So he really is one of my heroes in this regard.

Any last thoughts about AFT’s work in the Pacific Northwest?

We recognize that we are a very, very small organization with a very, very big mission and that we couldn’t get our work done without partnerships all over the place. It’s been wonderful as I get into this job, knowing how willing people are to partner with AFT based largely on a 30 year history of success in this area. And people lean into these activities. So I feel like we’re standing on other people’s shoulders doing this work, people that have gone before and done excellent work for AFT over the years.


Dennis CantyAbout the author: Dennis Canty is the Pacific Northwest Director for American Farmland Trust. Before joining AFT, Canty founded Evergreen Funding Consultants in 2001, a Seattle firm that focuses on funding strategies for environmental projects.

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Ken Burns’ The Dust Bowl Reminder to Continue Investment in Farmland Conservation

“Out of the long list of nature’s gifts to man, none is perhaps so utterly essential to human life as soil.” – Hugh Hammond Bennett, first chief of the Soil Conservation Service

Award-winning filmmaker Ken Burns’ latest project, “The Dust Bowl,” premiers on PBS on November 18-19. The film focuses on what PBS calls “the worst man made disaster in American history.”   Although the film centers on stories of generations past, many parallels exist between the circumstances that led to the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s and today. The U.S. is experiencing its second year of widespread, catastrophic drought with more than 64 percent of the nation in “moderate” or worse drought conditions. At the same time, farmers are being asked to feed a hungry world by maximizing production on every available acre.

While many factors contributed to the Dust Bowl, farmers today have advantages that did not exist back then. Most significant among them is the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Established by the Soil Conservation Act in 1935, the NRCS (originally the Soil Conservation Service) is the federal agency whose mission is to help farmers improve, protect and conserve fragile natural resources like soil and water upon which we all depend.

Farmers today work in cooperation with NRCS and local soil and water conservation districts and have made great strides in protecting farmland, improving soil health and caring for the land.

The financial resources for these efforts come from the farm bill, a piece of legislation that Congress writes every five years to establish farm and food policy. Congress has an opportunity this year to extend and fund several key conservation programs through the farm bill.  American Farmland Trust has been actively engaged in this legislative process to craft conservation programs that are efficient and effective in delivering good conservation results on the landscape.

Lack of a farm bill will not only hamper the ability for farmers to make continued improvements but also poses potential setbacks. Farm bill conservation programs are proven farmland-protection programs. They give farmers the vital tools they need to provide multiple environmental benefits including protecting and improving the soil, keeping water clean and creating abundant wildlife habitat.

Maintaining and strengthening the conservation programs being considered in this year’s farm bill will help protect our soil and water for future generations.  We encourage you to watch Mr. Burns’ film, “The Dust Bowl,” and consider the importance of continued investment in federal farm conservation programs.

More information on “The Dust Bowl” including videos, photo galleries, interactive material and information on when you can view it on your local station is available on the PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/


About the Author: Jeremy Peters is Director of Federal Policy at American Farmland Trust.

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